Shariah refers to the set of instructions being imposed on the Muslims. The source of Islamic Shariah comes from two major and most important sides that are Quran and Sunnah. The Holy Book Quran depicts the words of Allah Almighty which are not allowed to be altered and have not been altered since the inception of the world.
“Verily, this Qur’an guides to that which is best, and gives glad tidings to the believers who do good that theirs will be a great reward.” (Qur’an, 17:9)
“We have revealed the Remembrance [Qur’an] to you that you may explain to people that which was revealed for them.” (16:44)
Whatever that has been said the in the Quran is accurate and final and directly supervised by Allah. The Islamic Shariah constitutes sayings from the Holy book Quran. Sunnah is described as the practical example of Quran. All the practical implications of the Holy Book Quran by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) are included in Sunnah. Sunnah is also the vital part of Islamic Shariah and its importance has also been highlighted in few verses of the Quran. The Sunnah has been preserved in Hadith and the literature of sayings, actions and dealings of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
“Allah does not seek to place a burden on you, but that He purify you and perfect His grace upon you, that you may give thanks.” (5:6)
The Prophet (SAW) said, “None is more patient than Allah against the harmful and annoying words He hears (from the people): They ascribe children to Him, yet He bestows upon them health and provision.
- Reported by Bukhari, Hadeeth.
The Quran and Sunnah covers all the topics related to the complete course of life. All the issues related to the rights of men, women and the community on whole, the legal regulations leading the economical and political issues, the rules and regulations for interacting with a non Muslim, rules of doing business and dealing with people, the act of what is wrong and what is right and the complete standard and scale of leading a perfect and true life.
The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Allah said, “I have prepared for My righteous slaves (such excellent things) as no eye has ever seen, nor an ear has ever heard nor a human heart can ever think of. - Reported by Bukhari, Hadeeth.
“Our Lord, give us good in this life and good in the next, and save us from the punishment of the Fire.” (2:201)
There has been different school of laws governing the Islamic Shariah based on the Hadith being interpreted by different scholars. The difference in the interpretations and explanations lead to the development of different school of thoughts. There are generally five categories according to which the Shariah has been interpreted. These five categories are Fard, Mustahabb, Makruh, Mubah and Haraam. These are the standards which have been set according to which each act is defined in each of the discussed category.
Allah’s Messenger said, “When a woman observes the five times of prayer, fasts during Ramadan, preserves her chastity and obeys her husband, she may enter by any of the gates of Paradise she wishes.” - Reported by At-Tirmidhi, Hadeeth.
Say, “My prayer, my offering, my life and my death are for Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.” – The Holy Quran [6:162]
Fard refers to the obligatory actions which are imposed in every Muslim to follow that includes saying five times prayer daily, observing fast, observing Hajj once in lifetime etc. Mustahabb includes the actions and behavior which is recommended under Islamic Shariah including the rights of marriage and family etc. Mustahabb describes the perfect code of conduct and ethics to be adopted by Muslim men and women in order to spend a happy life. Makruh is categorized for such acts which are discouraged by the Quran and Sunnah to attempt. Such acts include robbery, sin or any criminal activity.
Righteousness is good morality, and wrongdoing is that which wavers in your soul and which you dislike people finding out about. - Reported by Muslim, Hadeeth.
For each We have appointed a divine law and a traced-out way. Had God willed, He could have made you one community. But that He may try you by that which He has given you. So vie one with another in good works. Unto God you will all return, and He will then inform you of that wherein you differ. – Qur’an, 5:48
Islamic Shariah defines particular punishments for such unlawful acts. Mubah is the neutral category which neither recommended nor appreciated and neither forbidden under the system of Islamic Shariah. Haraam actions are those acts which are strictly forbidden to be followed by the Holy book Quran and Sunnah and explicitly defined and Haraam. It includes certain eating material and sinful acts. All the Muslims are required to follow the Islamic Shariah system to have a life excluding the sins and criminal activities being described under the Islamic Shariah system.